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>>目前正在学习 StudyingLevel 4 Lesson 1[返回课程列表 Back to Lessons]

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课前语法Grammar

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Present Perfect (3rd verb) 现在完成时(第三类动词)

1st 2nd 3rd


In English, every verb has three parts: EatAteEaten

在英语中,每个动词有3种形式,即现在时(动词原型)、过去式和过去分词.如:EatAteEaten

Today I eat

Yesterday I ate

have eaten


 

Present Perfect: have/has + 3rd verb

现在完成时的组成:have/has + 动词的过去分词形式

I have eaten

She has eaten

They have eaten

 

Let's look at the 3rd verb form of verbs we already know:

 

*In regular verbs, the 2nd and 3rd verb are usually the same:

规则动词的过去分词形式和过去式形式一样,如:


1st verb

2nd verb

3rd verb

Walk

Walked

Walked

Call

Called

Called

Love

Loved

Loved

Visit

Visited

Visited

Succeed

Succeeded

Succeeded

Travel

Traveled

Traveled

Change

Changed

Changed

Study

Studied

Studied

*In irregular verbs, the 2nd and 3rd verb are usually different

不规则动词的完成时形式和过去式形式不一样,如:

 

 

1st verb

2nd verb

3rd verb

Go

Went

Gone

Be

Was/Were

Been

See

Saw

Seen

Eat

Ate

Eaten

Drink

Drank

Drunk

Sing

Sang

Sung

Do

Did

Done

Have

Had

Had

Make

Made

Made

Take

Took

Taken

Speak

Spoke

Spoken

Steal

Stole

Stolen

Drive

Drove

Driven

Grow

Grew

Grown

Fly

Flew

Flown


*In some verbs, the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd verb are all the same:

有些动词的一般现在时形式、过去式形式和完成时形式完全一样,如:


1st verb

2nd verb

3rd verb

Put

Put

Put

Cut

Cut

Cut

Hit

Hit

Hit


USING THE PRESENT PERFECT

We use the present perfect tense when an action happened at an unspecific time before now.
When it happened is not important, but it often affects the present.

现在完成时表示一个过去发生的动作在过去已经完成,并且这个过去发生并完成的动作对现在有影响或结果

When to use the present perfect:

现在完成时的用法:

1. Unspecific Time – to express an action that happened at an unspecific time before now or an uncompleted action that will happen. We often use unspecific time words in this construction like ever, never, always, before, yet, recently, and lately.

用于表示一个过去发生的动作已完成或者并未在过去完成,而是一直持续到现在,并且有可能继续下去(也可能到此结束)。通常和ever, never, always, before, yet, recently, lately等表时间的词连用,如:

- I have never eaten pizza.

- She has always lived in the city.

- I haven't finished my homework yet. (I will finish my homework but I don't know when)

**We CANNOT use the present perfect with time specific words like yesterday, last year, last week, etc.

现在完成时里没有诸如“昨天、去年,上周”之类表时间的词

2. Experience – to indicate something that you have done before, but the time is unspecific.

用于暗示曾经发生的事,但是没有具体时间

- I have been to France.

- I have driven a car.

- He hasn't ever drunk wine.

3. Change

用于表示变化

- Your son has grown a lot.

- Movie theaters have gotten more expensive.


PRACTICE WITH PRESENT PERFECT

练习现在完成时

Have you ever eaten pizza? Yes, I've eaten pizza. (I have = I've)

Has she ever eaten pizza? No, she hasn't ever eaten pizza.

Has she ever eaten pizza? (never) No, she has never eaten pizza. (hasn't ever = has never)

Have you been to France? Yes, he's been to France. (he has = he's)

Has he learned French yet? No, he hasn't learned French yet.